(역사) 프랑스 레지스탕스 운동 비사
It's well known the French government collaborated with the Nazis during World War Two, helping send tens of thousands of Jews to their deaths. What is less well known are the heroic efforts by members of underground resistance groups to save Jews in France. Many of those who risked their lives are now gone or have been reluctant to share their stories. 92-year-old Adolfo Kaminsky was a Jewish teenager when he joined the French resistance. He had a unique talent he had picked up while working at a dry cleaners, an expertise that helped him become one of the greatest forgers in France during the war. Incredibly, he and the resistance networks he worked with created fake identity documents that helped save the lives of as many as 14,000 Jewish men, women, and children.
Hitler's army entered Paris with a massive show of force. German troops marched past the Arc de Triomphe and raised the Nazi war flag over a stunned city. Hitler personally attended the surrender ceremony. The Nazis took control of Paris, but relied on French authorities and police to begin to identify Jews and round them up. As part of Hitler's final solution, tens of thousands of Jews, and others targeted by the Nazis in France were arrested and loaded onto trains bound for Auschwitz and other concentration camps. French resistance networks tried to save as many Jews as possible, especially children giving them fake identity papers and smuggling them across the border or hiding them in farms, schools and convents in France. Adolfo Kaminsky was just 18 when he began to work as a forger for the resistance. We had to move very quickly and help these people disappear
before they were arrested. So it was just racing against the clock and actually, I called it racing against death. That's what you were doing? Yes, day and night.
Kaminsky still has some of the fake documents he made, identity cards, passports, food ration cards, and birth and marriage certificates. This is one that was fabricated. This is one that was made for this person. So this is, this is your work? This is fake? That's all my work. It's all false. It's incredible. Oh yes, that's my writing. Everything. Jewish sounding names had to be replaced with more French-sounding ones, and the word Jew had to be somehow erased. Wow look at that, that's incredible. What is that? That is a real one. That is a model we would use. So this stamp, this word, Juif, was the difference between life and death? Yes. Having Jew stamped on anything meant you were in danger.
Two of the Jewish children who were saved by the resistance network Kaminsky worked for are Edith Mayer and Sarah Miller. Edith was 15 when she was forced into hiding, after her father and brother were sent to Auschwitz. What sort of documents did you need in order to be able to live? Well in France at the time, you were nothing if you didn't have ID. So I had to have a birth certificate and I had to have a carte d'identite. I guess, you know, an identity card. She showed us a copy of the fake birth certificate that saved her life. They gave you a new name. They gave me a new name, so instead of Edith Mayer, I became Elise Maillet, which sounds more French. And my fake father was Jules Maillet and my fake mother was Elian Marie Chauvin. It was critical that the papers be absolutely correct. Absolutely. If the forger made a mistake. Yeah, you were done for. Sarah Miller used her fake papers to get a job when she was 16 hiding in plain sight working as a salesgirl in a store frequented by Nazi troops. You were interacting with German soldiers all the time at work?
I tried my best to speak as little as possible. Obviously if they had known you were Jewish. Believe me, they would have come and picked me up and send me to the camp, that's for sure. But they didn't know.